Sample paper

A New Approach to the Organızatıonal Justice Concept :

The Collective Level Justice Perception


Taşkın Kılıç. Gümüşhane University/Turkey/

Witold Grabowski. Seta Academy/London, UK/

Sedat Bostan. Gümüşhane University/Turkey/








The Problem of the  Study: Based on literature review, it can be seen, that organizational justice-concerned theories and studies, focus mainly on the individual aspects of relationship between an organization, setting out rules and implementing justice, and the perception of justice developed by an individual, typically a member of this organization. In real circumstances however, individuals, creating a group or an organization, can observe the results of implementations of justice directly affecting themselves, and also, other members of the same group. Each of the two dimensions of this experience, have a role to play in shaping the collective level organizational justice perceptions. Existing scales, designed to measure the organizational justice phenomena, although applicable at the organization-individual level of relations within the basic three dimensions of the organizational justice model (distributive, procedural and interactional justice), are not sufficient to enable valid descriptions and to investigate the justice perceptions at the collective levels.


The Purpose of the Study :The present study focuses on finding correlation between the collective level justice implementations, and the organizational justice perceptions, developed by individuals remaining in a relation with their organization, while simultaneously experiencing justice implementation through relations with their colleagues, observing their behavior and perceptions, interacting at that level, and the results of these interactions, as a factor affecting their justice perceptions. Also explaining how exactly the individual perceptions are being affected and adjusted in the process of these interaction and observation. Relevant scales and theories, concerning the organizational justice model are being investigated and, in addition to the currently existing scales, a new approach is being developed in order to determine critical characteristics and dynamics of the collective justice perceptions.  


Method :The theoretical part of this study, is developed via literature review. A survey employed to gather data from the health organizations' staff in Turkey included; doctors, nurses and other healthcare staff members. Interviews were used and questionnaires were distributed to the secondary care hospitals reaching a final sample total of 105 respondents. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted in the environment of SPSS and LISREL software packages.


Findings and Results :Conducted study reveals a vital link and explores existing correlation between the scales, currently used to measure the organizational justice perceptions, and the collective-level of the perception of justice, as determined not only by direct and individual relation between a person and their organization, but also by coexisting at the collective level relations, and observations of the processes of justice being implemented at that level, and affecting these relations andthe perceptions of others. A new scale, with field application has been tested in order to query the collective level of justice perceptions. Related hypothesis and scales have been evaluated. It has been assumed, that adding a fourth (the collective dimension), to the existing scales of the organizational model of justice, found in literature as a three-dimensional concept, facilitates a more comprehensive understanding of the key factors, determining the organizational justice perceptions.


Key Words: Organizational Justice, Collective Justice, Justice,





Although issue of fairness, as a fundamental aspect of human behavior, social exchange and interaction has, to date, been examined from numerous perspectives, and by now, is certainly much older than any printed account of its explorations, its prominence in organizations concerned literature, became gradually more noticeable in relatively recent times. Organizational justice, as the key term to understanding the fairness within an organizational setting, has been gradually gaining on its clarity and shape, within the time of past few decades. Amongst many different approaches, one, provided by Beugré (1998), concise definition, seems to be bringing some of the different views onto a common ground.  After Beugré, “Organizational justice refers to the perceived fairness of the exchanges taking place in an organization, be they social or economic, and involving the individual, in his or her relations with superiors, subordinates, peers, and the organization as a social system”.


The question, this paper brings a research-based answer to is, how exactly the individual perceptions of justice, are being influenced by the collective level of the organizational justice experience, what factors may affect these perceptions (different patterns of behaviour, varied expectations of colleagues, coexisting simultaneously standards); and to what measurable extent.


2.The Conceptual Framework


2.1. Organizational Justice: Organizational justice refers to the perceived fairness of the exchanges taking place in an organization, be they social or economic, and involving the individual, in his or her relations with superiors, subordinates, peers, and the organization as a social system (Beugre, 1998).  


2.2. Collective Justice within the organizational model of justice: The particular dimension of the organizational justice: as seen from the perspective of a member -individual, being involved in the regular functioning of the organization, observing others (also justice, as applied to other members of the same organization), and developing their own perceptions, based on the total sum of those observations, and interactions with both: the collective (colleagues, managers - subordinates, superiors, and peers), and with the organization (also it’s justice procedures) in a complete and holistic manner.


2.3. Dimensions of the Organizational Justice: Organizational justice reflects the extent to which people perceive that they are treated fairly at work. This in turn, led to the identification of three different components of organizational justice: distributive, procedural, and interactional.  Distributive justice reflects the perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed or allocated (Adams,1963). Procedural justice is defined as the perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to make allocation decisions (Leventhal, 1976). The last justice dimension, interactional justice, relates to the “quality of the interpersonal treatment people receive when procedures are implemented.” This form of justice does not pertain to the outcomes or procedures associated with decision making, but rather it focuses on whether or not people feel they are treated fairly when decisions are implemented. Fair interpersonal treatment necessitates that managers communicate truthfully and treat people with courtesy and respect (Colquitt,2001).




3. 1. Research Model


Fig 1. In three-dimensional model collective perceptions are not being measured.





3.2. Scale:To measure the perception of organizational justice, a commonly used questionnaire which consisted of 20 items and three sub-dimensions, developed by Niehoff and Moorman (1993), and whose validity was verified (Turkish side) by Yıldırım (2007).

3.3.Sample: The sample research includes 105 employees, working in public hospital in Turkey (nurses, doctors, administrative and other staff representatives).


3.4.Reliability Analysis: Reliability Analysis Results, concerning each scale in this research are (Cronbach’s Alpha) : distribution justice (0,938), procedural justice (0,889),interactionaljustice (0.870) and, collective justice (0,780). According to these results, it can be seen, that all analyzed dimensions have acceptable reliability values.


3.5.Factor Analysis:‘Confirmatory factor analysis‘ has been applied to the scales in this study in the LISREL statistical software package, following the application of the ‘explanatory factor analysis’ made by Niehoff and Moorman (1993).


Table 3. Comparison Chart of Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results of the Scales






X² farkı

SD farkı

3 Factor Model








4  Factor  Model








X²:  X-Square,    SD:  Standard Deviation,  RMSEA: Root mean Square Error of Approximation/ 

CFI: Comparative Fit Index,  NFI: Normed Fit Index).





Within the scope of this research, three existing scales of the current theory defining organizational justice perceptions have been examined and criticised.  Based on the results of this examination, a new scale (the collective justice dimension), have been developed and tested, leading to the conclusion, that the four-dimensional model significantly improves measurability and facilitates better understanding of the organizational justice perception.   

It is concluded that, although theories and scales found in the literature and recognized under currently existing model of organizational justice, remain accurate when applied to perceptions developed by an individual in his or her personal relations with the organization, collective measures of perceptions can still be seen as vastly unrecognised.

Conducted studies revealed, that adding the fourth dimension (collective justice), to the existing scales of the organizational justice concept (typically seen as three-dimensional), would enable a more comprehensive and accurate understanding of the organizational justice perceptions. Seymen and others (2013), report to have achieved results, corresponding with our findings in a separately conducted study.

            Due to some inevitable limitations of the empirical part of the study, such as the sample-scale and time constraints, larger-scale, independent area research would prove instrumental in providing broader context for the results herein achieved.






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